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Standards & Legislations

Hinges



Introduction

But hinge are the most commonly applied door hinge, and are avliable in a range of materials and construction.

A 5mm knuckle hinge has a flap with three knuckles attached to the frame and flap with two knuckles attached to the door. Similarly, a three knuckle hinge has the flap with two knuckles attached to the frame with a single knuckle flap attached to the door.

EUROART hinges, where specified correctly to the recommendation of BS EN 1935, are capable of withstanding a severe degree of use. Most are particularly suitable for use with door closers and will help to ensure the smooth operation of the door.

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BS EN 1935 Single axis hinges

BS EN 1935 classifies door furniture door furniture by using an 8 digit coding system. A similar classification applies to all building hardware product standards so that complementry items of hardware can be specified to, for instance, a common level of corrosion resistace, category, category of use, etc. each digit refers to a particular feature of the product measured against the standard's performance requirements.


1. Category of Use

Four grades are identified:


Grade 1

Light duty

Grade 2

Medium Duty

Grade 3

Heavy duty

Grade 4

Severe Duty

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2. Durability

Three grades of durability are identified:


Grade 3

10 000 test cycles, for light duty hinges on windows only

Grade 4

25 000 test cycles, for light duty hinges on windows and doors

Grade 7

20 000 test cycles, for medium. heavy and serve duty hinges on door only


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3. Test door mass

Eight door mass grades related to single-axis hinges are identified in this European standard as shown in table 1 below.

Test door mass grade Door mass
0 10Kg
1 20Kg
2 40Kg
3. 60Kg
4 80Kg
5 100Kg
6 120Kg
7 140Kg

4. Fire Resistance

Two grades of fires resistance are identified:

Grade 0

Not approved for fire /smoke resistant door assemblies

Grade 1

Suitable for fire/smoke resistant door assemblies subject to satisfactory assessment of the contribution of the single-axis hinge to the fire resistance of the specified fire/smoke door assemblies. such assessment is beyond the scope of this European standard(see EN 1634-1).

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5. Safety

Single-axis hinges are required to satisfy the essential requirement of safety in use. Therefore, only grades 1 is identified.

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6. Corrosion Resistance

five grades of corrosion resistance are identified in accordance are identified in accordance with EN 1670:

Grade 0

No defiined corrosion resistance.

Grade 1

Mild resistance

Grade 2

Moderate Resistance

Grade 3

High resistace

Grade 4

Very High resistace

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7. Security

Two grades of security are identified for single-axis hinges:

Grade 0

Not suitable for use on burglar-resistant door assemblies

Grade 1

Suitable for applications requiring a degree of security. Annex C of this European standard details the hinge grade to use for the level of security required.

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8. Hinge grade

Fourteen grades are identified in this European standard and are detailed in table 2 below. the full classification is shown in the standard.

Hinge grade
usage
Test cycles
Door mass
1
Window
10 000
10kg
2
Window
10 000
20kg
3
Window/Door
25 000
20kg
4
Door
200 000
20kg
5
Window
10 000
20kg
6
Window/Door
25 000
40kg
7
Door
200 000
40kg
8
Window
10 000
40kg
9
Window/Door
25 000
60kg
10
Door
200 000
60kg
11
Door
200 000
60kg
12
Door
200 000
80kg
13
Door
200 000
100kg
14
Door
200 000
120kg
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BS EN 1634 Part 1: 2000

IS the European Fire safety Standard for determining the fire resistance of door and shutter assemblies including hardware designed for installation within openings incorporated in vertical seprating elements(doorsets). Locks can be assessed to be suitable on:-

  • FD (30 minute) Fire Doors
  • FD60 (60 minute) Fire Doors

CE Marking

CE Marking is the easiest and safer route to providin compliance with the latest uk construction Product Directive for hardware used on fire, smoke and escape doors.

Technical Considerations

Door weight, door size, location & intended use

TO specify the correct hinges there are n number of factors that need to be taken into consideration. the majiority of situation are straightforward and present few problems.however it is important that specifiers recognise where special care is required to ensure long and trouble free opertion. because of the wide variety of circumstances that exisit it is impossible to be perspective ,however the following is intended to draw attention to some of the potential problems areas and explain some of the principles involved

Factors to consider when specifying hinges

  • Is it a fire, smoke or emergency escape door?
  • How heavy is the door and what are the door dimension(height, width and thickness)?
  • What is the door's construction and are there any unusal features that could affect the hinges?
  • Where is the door situated e.g internal or external; is it near the coast or in a swiming pool?
  • What level of use/abuse will the door be subject to e.g office, hospital or school corridor?
  • What other items of hardware are to be fitted,that may be affect the hinge performance, typically door closer or door stops?
  • Any other unusal features involved e.g. door has radius top or the door is a bifold.

Forces operating on a door

There are two main forces that they hinge has to cope with. the vertical load; and, as hinged doors are side-hung, the horizontal or letral load.

The verical load is a direct result of the gross door weight. The horizontal load is created by:

  • The door weight
  • The door height to width ratio
  • where the hinges are positioned.

The wider the door is in relationto its height, the greater the side load that the hinges and their fixing have to support.

Locating the hinges

It is usual for at least three hinges to be fitted on doors; their positioning is determine by the size, weight and construction of the door and its intended use

Genral guidelines

  • Top and bottom hinges must be as far apart as reasonable, to maximise their ability to cope with side load.
  • Consider any other factors that will increase the loadings of hinges and their fixings.
  • Additional hinges are needed for tall doors, to prevent warpin(doors taller than 2200mm should be fitted with four hinges).